In the wake of the great financial crisis it can sometimes be difficult for Intelligent Investors to find a solid financial company in which to invest, because they require specific achievements over the historical period. Many investors may simply decide to throw out the worst years with the rationale that they are outliers that shouldn’t be considered when evaluating the company’s prospects, but doing so would involve speculation. We don’t know whether the financial crisis will happen again, but we do know that if it does, we can expect to see similar results as we did before. By continuing to require the same standards for the historical period, Intelligent Investors are able to whittle down banks to only those with the best financial position, and then they are able to determine an intrinsic value to get a sense of whether the company is a good investment. In addition, a company must have strong financial statements to prove that it is stable enough for Intelligent Investors. This is best done by utilizing a systematic approach to analysis that will provide investors with a sense of how a specific company compares to another company. By using the ModernGraham method one can review a company’s historical accomplishments and determine an intrinsic value that can be compared across industries. What follows is a specific look at how Bank of America Corporation (BAC) fares in the ModernGraham valuation model.
Company Profile (obtained from Google Finance): Bank of America Corporation (Bank of America) is a bank holding company and a financial holding company. The Company is a financial institution, serving individual consumers, small and middle market businesses, institutional investors, large corporations and governments with a range of banking, investing, asset management and other financial and risk management products and services. Through its banking and various nonbanking subsidiaries throughout the United States and in international markets, Bank of America provides a range of banking and nonbanking financial services and products through five business segments: Consumer & Business Banking (CBB), Consumer Real Estate Services (CRES), Global Wealth & Investment Management (GWIM), Global Banking and Global Markets and remaining operations are included in All Others. The Company’s franchise network includes approximately 5,100 banking centers, 16,300 ATMs, nationwide call centers, and online and mobile platforms.
Defensive Investor – must pass all 6 of the following tests: Score = 3/6
- Adequate Size of Enterprise – market capitalization of at least $2 billion – PASS
- Earnings Stability – positive earnings per share for at least 10 straight years – FAIL
- Dividend Record – has paid a dividend for at least 10 straight years – PASS
- Earnings Growth – earnings per share has increased by at least 1/3 over the last 10 years using 3 year averages at beginning and end of period – FAIL
- Moderate PEmg ratio – PEmg is less than 20 – FAIL
- Moderate Price to Assets – PB ratio is less than 2.5 or PB x PEmg is less than 50 – PASS
Enterprising Investor – must pass all 3 of the following tests or be suitable for a defensive investor: Score = 1/3
- Earnings Stability – positive earnings per share for at least 5 years – FAIL
- Dividend Record – currently pays a dividend – PASS
- Earnings growth – EPSmg greater than 5 years ago – FAIL
|Value Based on 3% Growth||$5.61|
|Value Based on 0% Growth||$3.29|
|Market Implied Growth Rate||16.09%|
Balance Sheet – December 2014
Earnings Per Share
Earnings Per Share – ModernGraham
Bank of America Corporation qualifies for the Enterprising Investor but not the Defensive Investor. The Defensive Investor is concerned by the lack of earnings stability or growth over the last ten years and the high PEmg ratio, while the Enterprising Investor is concerned by the lack of earnings stability or growth over the last five years. As a result, Enterprising Investors following the ModernGraham approach based on Benjamin Graham’s methods should feel comfortable proceeding with further research into the company and comparing it to other opportunities. As for a valuation, the company appears overvalued after seeing its EPSmg (normalized earnings) drop from $0.66 in 2010 to an estimated $0.39 for 2014. This level of demonstrated growth does not support the market’s implied estimate of 16.09% earnings growth and leads the ModernGraham valuation model, which is based on Benjamin Graham’s formula, to return an estimate of intrinsic value below the market price.
Be sure to check out previous ModernGraham valuations of Bank of America Corporation (BAC) for greater perspective!
The next part of the analysis is up to individual investors, and requires discussion of the company’s prospects. What do you think? What value would you put on Bank of America Corporation (BAC)? Where do you see the company going in the future? Is there a company you like better? Leave a comment on our Facebook page or mention @ModernGraham on Twitter to discuss.
Disclaimer: The author did not hold a position in Bank of America Corporation (BAC) or in any of the other companies listed in this article at the time of publication and had no intention of changing that position within the next 72 hours. Logo taken from the Wikipedia; this article is not affiliated with the company in any manner.