Benjamin Graham taught that Intelligent Investors must do a thorough fundamental analysis of investment opportunities to determine their intrinsic value and inherent risk. This is best done by utilizing a systematic approach to analysis that will provide investors with a sense of how a specific company compares to another company or by reviewing the 5 Most Undervalued Companies for the Defensive Investor – July 2015. By using the ModernGraham method one can review a company’s historical accomplishments and determine an intrinsic value that can be compared across industries. What follows is a stock analysis showing a specific look at how Cigna Corporation (CI) fares in the ModernGraham valuation model.
Company Profile (obtained from Google Finance): Cigna Corporation (Cigna), together with its subsidiaries, is a health services company. The Company offers medical, dental, disability, life and accident insurance and related products and services. The Company operates in three segments: Global Health Care, Global Supplemental Benefits and Group Disability and Life. The Global Health Care segment aggregates the commercial and Government operating segments. The Global Supplemental Benefits segment offers supplemental health, life and accident insurance products. The Group Disability and Life segment provides group long-term and short-term disability insurance, group life insurance, accident and specialty insurance and related services. Cigna offers commercial health and dental insurance, Medicare and Medicaid products and health, life and accident insurance coverages to individuals. It offers personal accident insurance coverage, consisting of accidental death and dismemberment and travel accident insurance.
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Defensive Investor – must pass all 6 of the following tests: Score = 4/6
- Adequate Size of Enterprise – market capitalization of at least $2 billion – PASS
- Earnings Stability – positive earnings per share for at least 10 straight years – PASS
- Dividend Record – has paid a dividend for at least 10 straight years – PASS
- Earnings Growth – earnings per share has increased by at least 1/3 over the last 10 years using 3 year averages at beginning and end of period – PASS
- Moderate PEmg ratio – PEmg is less than 20 – FAIL
- Moderate Price to Assets – PB ratio is less than 2.5 or PB x PEmg is less than 50 – FAIL
Enterprising Investor – must pass all 3 of the following tests or be suitable for a defensive investor: Score = 3/3
- Earnings Stability – positive earnings per share for at least 5 years – PASS
- Dividend Record – currently pays a dividend – PASS
- Earnings growth – EPSmg greater than 5 years ago – PASS
|MG Opinion||Fairly Valued|
|Value Based on 3% Growth||$100.65|
|Value Based on 0% Growth||$59.00|
|Market Implied Growth Rate||6.79%|
Balance Sheet – March 2015
Earnings Per Share
Earnings Per Share – ModernGraham
Cigna Corporation qualifies for the Enterprising Investor but not the more conservative Defensive Investor. The Defensive Investor is concerned with the high PEmg and PB ratios. The Enterprising Investor has no initial concerns. As a result, all Enterprising Investors following the ModernGraham approach based on Benjamin Graham’s methods should feel comfortable proceeding with the evaluation. As for a valuation, the company appears to be fairly valued after growing its EPSmg (normalized earnings) from $4.11 in 2011 to an estimated $6.94 for 2015. This level of demonstrated earnings growth supports the market’s implied estimate of 6.79% annual earnings growth over the next 7-10 years. As a result, the ModernGraham valuation model, based on Benjamin Graham’s formula, returns an estimate of intrinsic value within a margin of safety relative to the price.
The next part of the analysis is up to individual investors, and requires discussion of the company’s prospects. What do you think? What value would you put on Cigna Corporation (CI)? Where do you see the company going in the future? Is there a company you like better? Leave a comment on our Facebook page or mention @ModernGraham on Twitter to discuss.
Disclaimer: The author did not hold a position in any company mentioned in this article at the time of publication and had no intention of changing that position within the next 72 hours. Logo taken from Wikipedia for the sole purpose of identifying the company; this article is not affiliated with the company in any manner.