Benjamin Graham taught that Intelligent Investors must do a thorough fundamental analysis of investment opportunities to determine their intrinsic value and inherent risk. This is best done by utilizing a systematic approach to analysis that will provide investors with a sense of how a specific company compares to another company or by reviewing the 10 Most Undervalued Companies for the Defensive Investor – October 2015. By using the ModernGraham method one can review a company’s historical accomplishments and determine an intrinsic value that can be compared across industries. What follows is a stock analysis showing a specific look at how Goldman Sachs Group Inc. (GS) fares in the ModernGraham valuation model.
Company Profile (obtained from Google Finance): The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is a bank holding company and a financial holding company. The Company is a global investment banking, securities and investment management company that provides a range of financial services to a diversified client base that include corporations, financial institutions, Governments and individuals. The Company has four business segments. The Investment Banking segment’s services include strategic advisory assignments and debt and equity underwriting of public offerings and private placements. Its Institutional Client Services segment makes markets and facilitates client transactions in fixed income, equity, currency and commodity products. Its investing and lending activities include the Company’s investing and relationship lending activities across various asset classes, primarily debt securities and loans, public and private equity securities, and real estate. Its investment management segment provides investment and wealth advisory services.
Premium members can view a full ModernGraham valuation of the company and have access to download a PDF version of the valuation for easy reference. Here is a free sample valuation pdf, and here is a post detailing what can be found within each individual company’s valuation.
Downloadable PDF version of this valuation:
Stage 1: Is this company suitable for the Defensive Investor or the Enterprising Investor?
|Defensive Investor; must pass all 6 of the following tests.|
|1. Adequate Size of the Enterprise||Market Cap > $2Bil||$83,434,889,024||Pass|
|2. Earnings Stability||Positive EPS for 10 years prior||Pass|
|3. Dividend Record||Dividend Payments for 10 years prior||Pass|
|4. Earnings Growth||Increase of 33% in EPS in past 10 years using 3 year averages at beginning and end||-3.05%||Fail|
|5. Moderate PEmg Ratio||PEmg < 20||13.23||Pass|
|6. Moderate Price to Assets||PB Ratio < 2.5 OR PB*PEmg < 50||1.02||Pass|
|Enterprising Investor; must pass all 3 of the following tests, or be suitable for the Defensive Investor.|
|1. Earnings Stability||Positive EPS for 5 years prior||Pass|
|2. Dividend Record||Currently Pays Dividend||Pass|
|3. Earnings Growth||EPSmg greater than 5 years ago||Pass|
Stage 2: Determination of Intrinsic Value
|MG Growth Estimate||3.97%|
|MG Value based on 3% Growth||$214.39|
|MG Value based on 0% Growth||$125.68|
|Market Implied Growth Rate||2.37%|
|% of Intrinsic Value||80.46%|
Goldman Sachs Group Inc. qualifies for the Enterprising Investor but not the more conservative Defensive Investor. The Defensive Investor is concerned with the insufficient earnings growth over the last ten years. The Enterprising Investor has no initial concerns. As a result, all Enterprising Investors following the ModernGraham approach based on Benjamin Graham’s methods should feel comfortable proceeding with further research into the company.
As for a valuation, the company appears to be fairly valued after growing its EPSmg (normalized earnings) from $11.69 in 2011 to an estimated $14.79 for 2015. This level of demonstrated earnings growth supports the market’s implied estimate of 2.37% annual earnings growth over the next 7-10 years. As a result, the ModernGraham valuation model, based on Benjamin Graham’s formula, returns an estimate of intrinsic value within a margin of safety relative to the price.
The next part of the analysis is up to individual investors, and requires discussion of the company’s prospects. What do you think? What value would you put on Goldman Sachs Group Inc. (GS)? Where do you see the company going in the future? Is there a company you like better? Leave a comment on our Facebook page or mention @ModernGraham on Twitter to discuss.
Stage 3: Information for Further Research
|Number of Consecutive Years of Dividend Growth||4|
|ModernGraham tagged articles||Morningstar|
|Google Finance||MSN Money|
|Yahoo Finance||Seeking Alpha|
Most Recent Balance Sheet Figures
|Shares Outstanding (Diluted Average)||458,600,000|
Earnings Per Share History
|Next Fiscal Year Estimate||$14.87|
Earnings Per Share – ModernGraham History
|Next Fiscal Year Estimate||$14.79|
Other ModernGraham posts about the company
|5 Most Overvalued Dow Components – July 2015|
|5 Most Overvalued Dow Components – June 2015|
|5 Most Overvalued Dow Components – May 2015|
|5 Most Overvalued Dow Components – February 2015|
|5 Most Overvalued Dow Components – February 2015|
Other ModernGraham posts about related companies
The author did not hold a position in any company mentioned in this article at the time of publication and had no intention of changing that position within the next 72 hours. See my current holdings here. This article is not investment advice; any reader should speak to a registered investment adviser prior to making any investment decisions. ModernGraham is not affiliated with the company in any manner. Please be sure to review our detailed disclaimer.