Benjamin Graham taught that Intelligent Investors must do a thorough fundamental analysis of investment opportunities to determine their intrinsic value and inherent risk. This is best done by utilizing a systematic approach to analysis that will provide investors with a sense of how a specific company compares to another company or by reviewing the 10 Companies Benjamin Graham Would Invest In Today – June 2016. By using the ModernGraham method one can review a company’s historical accomplishments and determine an intrinsic value that can be compared across industries. What follows is a stock analysis showing a specific look at how Infosys Ltd (INFY) fares in the ModernGraham valuation model.
Company Profile (obtained from Google Finance): Infosys Limited is engaged in consulting, technology, outsourcing and next-generation services. The Company, along with its subsidiaries, provides business information technology services comprising application development and maintenance, independent validation, infrastructure management, engineering services comprising product engineering and life cycle solutions and business process management; consulting and systems integration services comprising consulting, enterprise solutions, systems integration and advanced technologies; products, business platforms and solutions to accelerate intellectual property-led innovation, including Finacle, its banking solution, and offerings in the areas of Analytics, Cloud and Digital Transformation. Its segments are Financial Services and Insurance (FSI), Manufacturing and Hi-tech (MFG & Hi-TECH), Energy & utilities, Communication and Services (ECS), Retail, Consumer packaged goods and Logistics (RCL), and Life Sciences and Healthcare (LSH).
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Downloadable PDF version of this valuation:
Stage 1: Is this company suitable for the Defensive Investor or the Enterprising Investor?
|Defensive Investor; must pass 6 out of the following 7 tests.|
|1. Adequate Size of the Enterprise||Market Cap > $2Bil||$39,835,973,504||Pass|
|2. Sufficiently Strong Financial Condition||Current Ratio > 2||3.90||Pass|
|3. Earnings Stability||Positive EPS for 10 years prior||Pass|
|4. Dividend Record||Dividend Payments for 10 years prior||Pass|
|5. Earnings Growth||Increase of 33% in EPS in past 10 years using 3 year averages at beginning and end||64.94%||Pass|
|6. Moderate PEmg Ratio||PEmg < 20||20.39||Fail|
|7. Moderate Price to Assets||PB Ratio < 2.5 OR PB*PEmg < 50||4.39||Fail|
|Enterprising Investor; must pass 4 out of the following 5 tests, or be suitable for the Defensive Investor.|
|1. Sufficiently Strong Financial Condition||Current Ratio > 1.5||3.90||Pass|
|2. Sufficiently Strong Financial Condition||Debt to NCA < 1.1||0.00||Pass|
|3. Earnings Stability||Positive EPS for 5 years prior||Pass|
|4. Dividend Record||Currently Pays Dividend||Pass|
|5. Earnings Growth||EPSmg greater than 5 years ago||Pass|
Stage 2: Determination of Intrinsic Value
|MG Growth Estimate||3.91%|
|MG Value based on 3% Growth||$12.74|
|MG Value based on 0% Growth||$7.47|
|Market Implied Growth Rate||5.95%|
|% of Intrinsic Value||125.00%|
Infosys Ltd ADR is suitable for the Enterprising Investor but not the more conservative Defensive Investor. The Defensive Investor is concerned with the high PEmg and PB ratios. The Enterprising Investor has no initial concerns. As a result, all Enterprising Investors following the ModernGraham approach should feel comfortable proceeding with the analysis.
As for a valuation, the company appears to be Overvalued after growing its EPSmg (normalized earnings) from $0.7 in 2013 to an estimated $0.88 for 2017. This level of demonstrated earnings growth does not support the market’s implied estimate of 5.95% annual earnings growth over the next 7-10 years. As a result, the ModernGraham valuation model, based on Benjamin Graham’s formula, returns an estimate of intrinsic value below the price.
Infosys Ltd ADR receives an average overall rating in the ModernGraham grading system, scoring a C+.
Stage 3: Information for Further Research
|Net Current Asset Value (NCAV)||$2.51|
|Number of Consecutive Years of Dividend Growth||4|
|ModernGraham tagged articles||Morningstar|
|Google Finance||MSN Money|
|Yahoo Finance||Seeking Alpha|
Most Recent Balance Sheet Figures
|Balance Sheet Information||3/1/2016|
|Total Current Assets||$7,802,000,000|
|Total Current Liabilities||$1,998,000,000|
|Shares Outstanding (Diluted Average)||2,285,719,000|
Earnings Per Share History
|Next Fiscal Year Estimate||$0.93|
Earnings Per Share – ModernGraham History
|Next Fiscal Year Estimate||$0.88|
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The author did not hold a position in any company mentioned in this article at the time of publication and had no intention of changing that position within the next 72 hours. See my current holdings here. This article is not investment advice; any reader should speak to a registered investment adviser prior to making any investment decisions. ModernGraham is not affiliated with the company in any manner. Please be sure to review our detailed disclaimer.