Benjamin Graham taught that Intelligent Investors must do a thorough fundamental analysis of investment opportunities to determine their intrinsic value and inherent risk. This is best done by utilizing a systematic approach to analysis that will provide investors with a sense of how a specific company compares to another company or by reviewing the 10 Stocks for Using A Benjamin Graham Value Investing Strategy – February 2017. By using the ModernGraham method one can review a company’s historical accomplishments and determine an intrinsic value that can be compared across industries. What follows is a stock analysis showing a specific look at how CARBO Ceramics Inc (CRR) fares in the ModernGraham valuation model.
Company Profile (obtained from Google Finance): Carbo Ceramics Inc. is an oilfield services technology company. The Company supplies ceramic proppant. The Company also sells sand and resin-coated proppants. Additionally, it provides fracture simulation software, fracture design and consulting services, and a range of technologies for spill prevention, containment and related countermeasures. Its products and services are used in the hydraulic fracturing of natural gas and oil wells. It manufactures various ceramic proppants, including KRYPTOSPHERETM HD, which is a ceramic proppant engineered to deliver conductivity and durability in closure stress wells; KRYPTOSPHERE LD, which is a lower density proppant compared to KRYPTOSPHERE HD; CARBOHSP and CARBOPROP, which are high and intermediate density ceramic proppants, and CARBOLITE, CARBOECONOPROP and CARBOHYDROPROP, which are low-density ceramic proppants. It offers CARBO NORTHERN WHITE, which is a frac sand; CARBONRT, a detectable proppant, and SCALEGUARD, a porous ceramic proppant.
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Downloadable PDF version of this valuation:
Stage 1: Is this company suitable for the Defensive Investor or the Enterprising Investor?
|Defensive Investor; must pass 6 out of the following 7 tests.|
|1. Adequate Size of the Enterprise||Market Cap > $2Bil||$322,932,801||Fail|
|2. Sufficiently Strong Financial Condition||Current Ratio > 2||6.24||Pass|
|3. Earnings Stability||Positive EPS for 10 years prior||Fail|
|4. Dividend Record||Dividend Payments for 10 years prior||Fail|
|5. Earnings Growth||Increase of 33% in EPS in past 10 years using 3 year averages at beginning and end||-216.31%||Fail|
|6. Moderate PEmg Ratio||PEmg < 20||-4.75||Fail|
|7. Moderate Price to Assets||PB Ratio < 2.5 OR PB*PEmg < 50||0.47||Fail|
|Enterprising Investor; must pass 4 out of the following 5 tests, or be suitable for the Defensive Investor.|
|1. Sufficiently Strong Financial Condition||Current Ratio > 1.5||6.24||Pass|
|2. Sufficiently Strong Financial Condition||Debt to NCA < 1.1||0.37||Pass|
|3. Earnings Stability||Positive EPS for 5 years prior||Fail|
|4. Dividend Record||Currently Pays Dividend||Pass|
|5. Earnings Growth||EPSmg greater than 5 years ago||Fail|
Stage 2: Determination of Intrinsic Value
|MG Growth Estimate||-4.25%|
|MG Value based on 3% Growth||-$36.64|
|MG Value based on 0% Growth||-$21.48|
|Market Implied Growth Rate||-6.63%|
|% of Intrinsic Value||265.35%|
CARBO Ceramics Inc. does not satisfy the requirements of either the Enterprising Investor or the more conservative Defensive Investor. The Defensive Investor is concerned with the small size, insufficient earnings stability or growth over the last ten years, the poor dividend history, and the high PEmg and PB ratios. The Enterprising Investor has concerns regarding the lack of earnings stability or growth over the last five years. As a result, all value investors following the ModernGraham approach should explore other opportunities at this time or proceed cautiously with a speculative attitude.
As for a valuation, the company appears to be Overvalued after seeing its EPSmg (normalized earnings) decline from $4.18 in 2013 to an estimated $-2.53 for 2017. This level of negative earnings does not support a positive valuation.As a result, the ModernGraham valuation model, based on the Benjamin Graham value investing formula, returns an estimate of intrinsic value below the price.
At the time of valuation, further research into CARBO Ceramics Inc. revealed the company was trading above its Graham Number of $0. The company pays a dividend of $0.1 per share, for a yield of 0.8% Its PEmg (price over earnings per share – ModernGraham) was -4.75, which was below the industry average of 69.19, which by some methods of valuation makes it one of the most undervalued stocks in its industry. Finally, the company was trading above its Net Current Asset Value (NCAV) of $4.53.
CARBO Ceramics Inc. scores quite poorly in the ModernGraham grading system, with an overall grade of D.
Stage 3: Information for Further Research
|Net Current Asset Value (NCAV)||$4.53|
|Number of Consecutive Years of Dividend Growth||1|
|ModernGraham tagged articles||Morningstar|
|Google Finance||MSN Money|
|Yahoo Finance||Seeking Alpha|
Most Recent Balance Sheet Figures
|Balance Sheet Information||12/1/2016|
|Total Current Assets||$217,223,000|
|Total Current Liabilities||$34,804,000|
|Shares Outstanding (Diluted Average)||24,378,000|
Earnings Per Share History
|Next Fiscal Year Estimate||-$3.79|
Earnings Per Share – ModernGraham History
|Next Fiscal Year Estimate||-$2.53|
Other ModernGraham posts about the company
None. This is the first time ModernGraham has covered the company.
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The author did not hold a position in any company mentioned in this article at the time of publication and had no intention of changing that position within the next 72 hours. See my current holdings here. This article is not investment advice; any reader should speak to a registered investment adviser prior to making any investment decisions. ModernGraham is not affiliated with the company in any manner. Please be sure to review our detailed disclaimer.