Benjamin Graham taught that Intelligent Investors must do a thorough fundamental analysis of investment opportunities to determine their intrinsic value and inherent risk. Â This isÂ best done by utilizing a systematic approach to analysis that will provide investors with a sense of how a specific company compares to another companyÂ or by reviewing theÂ 5 Most Undervalued Companies for the Defensive Investor – June 2015.Â By using theÂ ModernGraham methodÂ one can review a company’s historical accomplishments and determine an intrinsic value that can be compared across industries. Â What follows is a stock analysis showing a specific look at how Infosys (INFY)Â fares in theÂ ModernGraham valuation model.
Company ProfileÂ (obtained fromÂ Google Finance): Infosys Limited (Infosys) is a services company that provides business consulting, technology, engineering and outsourcing services. The Company also offers products, platforms and solutions to clients in different industries. Its business solutions include business IT services, consulting and systems integration services, products, business platforms and solutions, and cloud computing and enterprise mobility. Business IT services comprise application development and maintenance, independent validation services, infrastructure management, engineering services comprising product engineering and life cycle solutions and business process management. Consulting and systems integration services include consulting, enterprise solutions, systems integration and advanced technologies. Products, business platforms and solutions include Finacle, the companyâ€™s banking product.
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Defensive Investor – must pass at least 6 of the following 7 tests: Score = 6/7
- Adequate Size of Enterprise – market capitalization of at least $2 billion -Â PASS
- Sufficiently Strong Financial Condition – current ratio greater than 2 -Â PASS
- Earnings Stability – positive earnings per share for at least 10 straight years -Â PASS
- Dividend Record – has paid a dividend for at least 10 straight years -Â PASS
- Earnings Growth – earnings per share has increased by at least 1/3 over the last 10 years using 3 year averages at beginning and end of period -Â PASS
- Moderate PEmg ratio – PEmg is less than 20 -Â FAIL
- Moderate Price to Assets – PB ratio is less than 2.5 or PB x PEmg is less than 50 -Â PASS
Enterprising Investor – must pass at least 4Â of the following 5 tests or be suitable for a defensive investor: Score = 5/5
- Sufficiently Strong Financial Condition, Part 1 – current ratio greater than 1.5 -Â PASS
- Sufficiently Strong Financial Condition, Part 2 – Debt to Net Current Assets ratio less than 1.1 -Â PASS
- Earnings Stability – positive earnings per share for at least 5 years -Â PASS
- Dividend Record – currently pays a dividend -Â PASS
- Earnings growth – EPSmg greater than 5 years ago -Â PASS
|MG Opinion||Fairly Valued|
|Value Based on 3% Growth||$11.48|
|Value Based on 0% Growth||$6.73|
|Market Implied Growth Rate||5.95%|
|Net Current Asset Value (NCAV)||$4.99|
Balance Sheet – AprilÂ 2015
Earnings Per Share
Earnings Per ShareÂ – ModernGraham
InfosysÂ qualifies for both the Defensive Investor and the Enterprising Investor. Â The Defensive Investor is only concerned with the high PEmg ratio. Â The Enterprising InvestorÂ has no initial concerns. Â As a result, all valueÂ investorsÂ following the ModernGraham approach based on Benjamin Graham’s methods should feel comfortable proceeding with the evaluation. Â As for a valuation,Â the company appears to be fairlyÂ valued afterÂ growingÂ itsÂ EPSmg (normalized earnings) from $0.58 in 2011 to $0.79Â for 2015. Â This level of demonstrated earnings growth supports the market’s implied estimate ofÂ 5.95% annual earnings growth over the next 7-10 years.Â As a result, the ModernGrahamÂ valuation model, based on Benjamin Graham’s formula, returns an estimate of intrinsic value within a margin of safety relative toÂ the price.
The next part of the analysis is up to individual investors, and requires discussion of the company’s prospects. Â What do you think? Â What value would you put on Infosys (INFY)? Â Where do you see the company going in the future? Â Is there a company you like better? Â Leave aÂ comment on ourÂ Facebook pageÂ or mentionÂ @ModernGrahamÂ on Twitter to discuss.
Disclaimer: Â The author did not hold aÂ position in any company mentioned in this articleÂ at the time of publication and had no intention of changing that position within the next 72 hours. Â Logo taken from Wikipedia for the sole purpose of identifying the company; this article is not affiliated with the company in any manner.