Benjamin Graham taught that Intelligent Investors must do a thorough fundamental analysis of investment opportunities to determine their intrinsic value and inherent risk. Â This isÂ best done by utilizing a systematic approach to analysis that will provide investors with a sense of how a specific company compares to another companyÂ or by reviewing theÂ 5 Most Undervalued Companies for the Defensive Investor – July 2015.Â By using theÂ ModernGraham methodÂ one can review a company’s historical accomplishments and determine an intrinsic value that can be compared across industries. Â What follows is a stock analysis showing a specific look at how Western Refining Inc. (WNR)Â fares in theÂ ModernGraham valuation model.
Company ProfileÂ (obtained fromÂ Google Finance): Western Refining, Inc. (Western) is an independent crude oil refiner and marketer of refined products. The Company operates through four business segments: refining, Northern Tier Energy LP (NTI), Western Refining Logistics, LP (WNRL) and retail. The Company’s refining segment owns and operates two refineries in the Southwest that process crude oil and other feedstocks primarily into gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel and asphalt. The NTI segment owns and operates refining and transportation assets and operates and supports retail convenience stores primarily in the Upper Great Plains region of the United States. The WNRL segment owns and operates terminal, storage, transportation and provides related services primarily to its refining segment in the Southwest. The retail segment operates retail convenience stores and unmanned commercial fleet fueling locations located in the Southwest. The retail convenience stores sell gasoline, diesel fuel and convenience store merchandise.
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Defensive Investor – must pass at least 6 of the following 7 tests: Score = 5/7
- Adequate Size of Enterprise – market capitalization of at least $2 billion -Â PASS
- Sufficiently Strong Financial Condition – current ratio greater than 2 -Â PASS
- Earnings Stability – positive earnings per share for at least 10 straight years -FAIL
- Dividend Record – has paid a dividend for at least 10 straight years -Â FAIL
- Earnings Growth – earnings per share has increased by at least 1/3 over the last 10 years using 3 year averages at beginning and end of period -Â PASS
- Moderate PEmg ratio – PEmg is less than 20 -Â PASS
- Moderate Price to Assets – PB ratio is less than 2.5 or PB x PEmg is less than 50 -Â PASS
Enterprising Investor – must pass at least 4Â of the following 5 tests or be suitable for a defensive investor: Score = 4/5
- Sufficiently Strong Financial Condition, Part 1 – current ratio greater than 1.5 -Â PASS
- Sufficiently Strong Financial Condition, Part 2 – Debt to Net Current Assets ratio less than 1.1 -Â FAIL
- Earnings Stability – positive earnings per share for at least 5 years -Â PASS
- Dividend Record – currently pays a dividend -Â PASS
- Earnings growth – EPSmg greater than 5 years ago -Â PASS
|Value Based on 3% Growth||$57.63|
|Value Based on 0% Growth||$33.78|
|Market Implied Growth Rate||1.35%|
|Net Current Asset Value (NCAV)||-$28.54|
Balance Sheet – MarchÂ 2015
Earnings Per Share
Earnings Per ShareÂ – ModernGraham
Western RefiningÂ Inc.Â qualifies for the Enterprising Investor but not the more conservative Defensive Investor. Â The Defensive Investor is concerned with the insufficient earnings stability over the last ten years as well as the inconsistent dividend record over that period. Â The Enterprising InvestorÂ is only initially concerned with the level of debt relative to the net current assets. Â As a result, all Enterprising InvestorsÂ following the ModernGraham approach based on Benjamin Graham’s methods should feel comfortable proceeding with the evaluation. Â As for a valuation,Â the company appears to be undervalued afterÂ growingÂ itsÂ EPSmg (normalized earnings) from a loss of $0.13 in 2011 to a gain ofÂ $3.97 for 2015. Â This level of demonstrated earnings growth surpassesÂ the market’s implied estimate of 1.35% annual earnings growth over the next 7-10 years.Â As a result, the ModernGrahamÂ valuation model, based on Benjamin Graham’s formula, returns an estimate of intrinsic value aboveÂ the price.
The next part of the analysis is up to individual investors, and requires discussion of the company’s prospects. Â What do you think? Â What value would you put on Western Refining Inc. (WNR)? Â Where do you see the company going in the future? Â Is there a company you like better? Â Leave aÂ comment on ourÂ Facebook pageÂ or mentionÂ @ModernGrahamÂ on Twitter to discuss.
Disclaimer: Â The author did not hold aÂ position in any company mentioned in this articleÂ at the time of publication and had no intention of changing that position within the next 72 hours. Â Logo taken from Wikipedia for the sole purpose of identifying the company; this article is not affiliated with the company in any manner.