Benjamin Graham taught that Intelligent Investors must do a thorough fundamental analysis of investment opportunities to determine their intrinsic value and inherent risk. Â This isÂ best done by utilizing a systematic approach to analysis that will provide investors with a sense of how a specific company compares to another companyÂ or by reviewing theÂ 10 Stocks for Using A Benjamin Graham Value Investing Strategy – FebruaryÂ 2017.Â By using theÂ ModernGraham methodÂ one can review a company’s historical accomplishments and determine an intrinsic value that can be compared across industries. Â What follows is a stock analysis showing a specific look at how Torchmark Corporation (TMK)Â fares in theÂ ModernGraham valuation model.
Company ProfileÂ (obtained fromÂ Google Finance): Torchmark Corporation is an insurance holding company. The Company, through its subsidiaries, provides a range of life and health insurance products and annuities to a broad base of customers. The Company’s segments include life insurance, health insurance, annuities and investment. The life insurance segment offers whole-life insurance and term life insurance. The Health insurance products are guaranteed-renewable and include Medicare Supplement, critical illness, accident, long-term care and limited-benefit supplemental hospital and surgical coverage’s. Annuities include fixed-benefit contracts. The Company markets its insurance products through various distribution channels, each of which sells the products of its insurance segments. Its primary subsidiaries are American Income Life Insurance Company, Liberty National Life Insurance Company, Globe Life And Accident Insurance Company, United American Insurance Company and Family Heritage Life Insurance Company of America.
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Downloadable PDF version of this valuation:
Stage 1: Is this company suitable for the Defensive Investor or the Enterprising Investor?
|Defensive Investor; must pass all 6 of the following tests.|
|1. Adequate Size of the Enterprise||Market Cap > $2Bil||$9,240,742,957||Pass|
|2. Earnings Stability||Positive EPS for 10 years prior||Pass|
|3. Dividend Record||Dividend Payments for 10 years prior||Pass|
|4. Earnings Growth||Increase of 33% in EPS in past 10 years using 3 year averages at beginning and end||86.33%||Pass|
|5. Moderate PEmg Ratio||PEmg < 20||17.90||Pass|
|6. Moderate Price to Assets||PB Ratio < 2.5 OR PB*PEmg < 50||2.10||Pass|
|Enterprising Investor; must pass all 3 of the following tests, or be suitable for the Defensive Investor.|
|1. Earnings Stability||Positive EPS for 5 years prior||Pass|
|2. Dividend Record||Currently Pays Dividend||Pass|
|3. Earnings Growth||EPSmg greater than 5 years ago||Pass|
Stage 2: Determination of Intrinsic Value
|MG Growth Estimate||4.71%|
|MG Value based on 3% Growth||$63.47|
|MG Value based on 0% Growth||$37.21|
|Market Implied Growth Rate||4.70%|
|% of Intrinsic Value||99.90%|
Torchmark Corporation qualifies for both the Defensive Investor and the Enterprising Investor. In fact, the company meets all of the requirements of both investor types, a rare accomplishment indicative of the company’s strong financial position . The Enterprising Investor has no initial concerns. As a result, all value investors following the ModernGraham approach should feel comfortable proceeding with the analysis.
As for a valuation, the company appears to be Fairly Valued after growing its EPSmg (normalized earnings) from $3.33 in 2013 to an estimated $4.38 for 2017. This level of demonstrated earnings growth supports the market’s implied estimate of 4.7% annual earnings growth over the next 7-10 years. As a result, the ModernGraham valuation model, based on Benjamin Graham’s formula, returns an estimate of intrinsic value within a margin of safety relative to the price.
At the time of valuation, further research into Torchmark Corporation revealed the company was trading above its Graham Number of $63.73. The company pays a dividend of $0.56 per share, for a yield of 0.7% Its PEmg (price over earnings per share – ModernGraham) was 17.9, which was below the industry average of 18.78, which by some methods of valuation makes it one of the most undervalued stocks in its industry.
Torchmark Corporation receives an average overall rating in the ModernGraham grading system, scoring a C+.
Stage 3: Information for Further Research
|Number of Consecutive Years of Dividend Growth||12|
|ModernGraham tagged articles||Morningstar|
|Google Finance||MSN Money|
|Yahoo Finance||Seeking Alpha|
Most Recent Balance Sheet Figures
|Balance Sheet Information||12/1/2016|
|Long-Term Debt & Capital Lease Obligation||$1,133,165,000|
|Shares Outstanding (Diluted Average)||122,368,000|
Earnings Per Share History
|Next Fiscal Year Estimate||$4.65|
Earnings Per Share – ModernGraham History
|Next Fiscal Year Estimate||$4.38|
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The author did not hold aÂ position in any company mentioned in this articleÂ at the time of publication and had no intention of changing that position within the next 72 hours. Â See my current holdings here. Â This article is not investment advice; any reader should speak to aÂ registeredÂ investment adviser prior to making any investment decisions. Â ModernGraham is not affiliated with the company in any manner. Â Please be sure to review our detailed disclaimer.