Benjamin Graham taught that Intelligent Investors must do a thorough fundamental analysis of investment opportunities to determine their intrinsic value and inherent risk. Â This isÂ best done by utilizing a systematic approach to analysis that will provide investors with a sense of how a specific company compares to another companyÂ or by reviewing theÂ 10 Undervalued Stocks for the Enterprising Investor â€“ August 2017.Â By using theÂ ModernGraham methodÂ one can review a company’s historical accomplishments and determine an intrinsic value that can be compared across industries. Â What follows is a stock analysis showing a specific look at how Apple Inc (AAPL)Â fares in theÂ ModernGraham valuation model.
Company ProfileÂ (obtained fromÂ Marketwatch): Apple, Inc. engages in the design, manufacture, and marketing of mobile communication, media devices, personal computers, and portable digital music players. It operates through the following geographical segments: Americas, Europe, Greater China, Japan, and Rest of Asia Pacific. The Americas segment includes both North and South America. The Europe segment consists of European countries, as well as India, the Middle East, and Africa. The Greater China segment comprises of China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. The Rest of Asia Pacific segment includes Australia and Asian countries not included in the reportable operating segments of the company. The company was founded by Steven Paul Jobs, Ronald Gerald Wayne, and Stephen G. Wozniak on April 1, 1976 and is headquartered in Cupertino, CA.
Downloadable PDF version of this valuation:
Stage 1: Is this company suitable for the Defensive Investor or the Enterprising Investor?
|Defensive Investor; must pass 6 out of the following 7 tests.|
|1. Adequate Size of the Enterprise||Market Cap > $2Bil||$873,716,604,806||Pass|
|2. Sufficiently Strong Financial Condition||Current Ratio > 2||1.24||Fail|
|3. Earnings Stability||Positive EPS for 10 years prior||Pass|
|4. Dividend Record||Dividend Payments for 10 years prior||Fail|
|5. Earnings Growth||Increase of 33% in EPS in past 10 years using 3 year averages at beginning and end||283.01%||Pass|
|6. Moderate PEmg Ratio||PEmg < 20||18.31||Pass|
|7. Moderate Price to Assets||PB Ratio < 2.5 OR PB*PEmg < 50||6.33||Fail|
|Enterprising Investor; must pass 4 out of the following 5 tests, or be suitable for the Defensive Investor.|
|1. Sufficiently Strong Financial Condition||Current Ratio > 1.5||1.24||Fail|
|2. Sufficiently Strong Financial Condition||Debt to NCA < 1.1||3.71||Fail|
|3. Earnings Stability||Positive EPS for 5 years prior||Pass|
|4. Dividend Record||Currently Pays Dividend||Pass|
|5. Earnings Growth||EPSmg greater than 5 years ago||Pass|
Stage 2: Determination of Intrinsic Value
|MG Growth Estimate||10.20%|
|MG Value based on 3% Growth||$136.36|
|MG Value based on 0% Growth||$79.93|
|Market Implied Growth Rate||4.91%|
|% of Intrinsic Value||63.37%|
Apple Inc. does not satisfy the requirements of either the Enterprising Investor or the more conservative Defensive Investor. The Defensive Investor is concerned with the low current ratio, poor dividend history, and the high PB ratio. The Enterprising Investor has concerns regarding the level of debt relative to the current assets. As a result, all value investors following the ModernGraham approach should explore other opportunities at this time or proceed cautiously with a speculative attitude.
As for a valuation, the company appears to be Undervalued after growing its EPSmg (normalized earnings) from $5.6 in 2014 to an estimated $9.4 for 2018. This level of demonstrated earnings growth outpaces the market’s implied estimate of 4.91% annual earnings growth over the next 7-10 years. As a result, the ModernGraham valuation model, based on the Benjamin Graham value investing formula, returns an estimate of intrinsic value above the price.
At the time of valuation, further research into Apple Inc. revealed the company was trading above its Graham Number of $80.01. The company pays a dividend of $2.4 per share, for a yield of 1.4% Its PEmg (price over earnings per share – ModernGraham) was 18.31, which was below the industry average of 41.95, which by some methods of valuation makes it one of the most undervalued stocks in its industry. Finally, the company was trading above its Net Current Asset Value (NCAV) of $-23.81.
Apple Inc. receives an average overall rating in the ModernGraham grading system, scoring a C-.
Stage 3: Information for Further Research
|Net Current Asset Value (NCAV)||-$23.81|
|Number of Consecutive Years of Dividend Growth||6|
|ModernGraham tagged articles||Morningstar|
|Google Finance||MSN Money|
|Yahoo Finance||Seeking Alpha|
Most Recent Balance Sheet Figures
|Balance Sheet Information||12/1/2017|
|Total Current Assets||$143,810,000,000|
|Total Current Liabilities||$115,788,000,000|
|Shares Outstanding (Diluted Average)||5,157,787,000|
Earnings Per Share History
|Next Fiscal Year Estimate||$10.88|
Earnings Per Share – ModernGraham History
|Next Fiscal Year Estimate||$9.40|
Other ModernGraham posts about the company
|Apple Inc Valuation â€“ January 2017 $AAPL|
|Apple Inc Valuation â€“ August 2016 $AAPL|
|Apple Inc Valuation â€“ February 2016 $AAPL|
|My Personal Holdings: Apple Inc. â€“ September 2015 Update $AAPL|
|27 Companies in the Spotlight This Week â€“ 12/20/14|
Other ModernGraham posts about related companies
The author held a long position in AAPL but did not hold a position in any other company mentioned in this articleÂ at the time of publication and had no intention of changing that position within the next 72 hours. Â See my current holdings here. Â This article is not investment advice; any reader should speak to aÂ registeredÂ investment adviser prior to making any investment decisions. Â ModernGraham is not affiliated with the company in any manner. Â Please be sure to review our detailed disclaimer.